Volume 02 Issue 02
Parametric Kernel Estimation for License Plate Image Deblurring
M. Jagadeeshwari, K. Sridhar | pp: 01-05 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: License plate plays a key role in identifying the over-speed vehicle or the ones involved in hit-and-run accidents. Even though the surveillance camera captures the snapshot of trouble-maker vehicle, the motion of vehicle during the exposure time would cause the blur of snapshot image with low resolution and can be unrecognizable by human. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach on the identification of linear uniform motion blur kernel using sparse representation and that can be characterized by two parameters: angle and length. By analyzing the sparse representation coefficients of the captured image, Coarse-to-fine framework can be done for determining the angle of the kernel corresponds to the genuine motion angle. Then, we estimate the length of the motion kernel with Fourier transform followed by Radon transform. Our proposed scheme can handle large motion blur even when the license plate is unrecognizable by human.
Performance of Secured Communication in OFDMA Based Cognitive Radio Networks
G. Meera, R. Selvarasan | pp: 06-11 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: To propose a secure cooperative communications theme for MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based cognitive radio networks wherever a primary base station (PBS) needs to transmit information to some distant primary users (Pus) within the presence of a collection of passive eavesdroppers. In this model, the transmission is performed in two consecutive slots; within the initial time slot, PBS transmits whereas secondary users (Sus) and therefore the eavesdroppers listen. within the second slot, Sus transmit whereas PUs, secondary base station (SBS), and therefore the eavesdroppers listen. In planned model, (Sus) area unit allowed to use the accredited spectrum of PUs as long as they assist PUs to satisfy their secrecy rate demand. I have a tendency to assume a frame based mostly transmission wherever every frame is split into two consecutive time slots of equal period. And proposed scheme multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology with cognitive network provides more secure and efficient communication than that of the conventional scheme.
Power Efficient Channel Estimation and Signal Detection on Downlink using MIMO-OFDM Technique
J. Nandhini, S. Senthamizhl Selvi, S. Gayathri | pp: 12-17 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The channel estimation (CE) and multi-user detection (MUD) has become a crucial part of iterative receivers. It requires high power for receiving a transmitted signal for multiple user. To overcome this problem we proposed a MIMO-OFDM system. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has drawn substantial research interests during the past decade and has been deemed as the key component of future wireless communication systems to mitigate inter symbol interference and enhance system capacity. channel estimation and multi-user detection scheme is proposed for multi-user multi-input multiple output (MIMO) aided orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. By using a new joint blind CFO and channel estimation method for OFDM system with multi-antenna receiver, which gradually improves the accuracy of the channel estimation and the multi user detection. This method supports fully loaded systems and is valid for multiple user with low power consumption by using OAT methodology. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed channel estimator is capable of approaching the Cramer-Rao lower bound.
Blood Vessel Segmentation Using SOSVM for Fundus Images
R. Nivedha, S. Gayathri | pp: 18-23 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: In this work, we present an extensive description and evaluation of our method for blood vessel segmentation in fundus images based on a region growing method. Age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy is a chronic eye disease that leads to Vision loss. As it cannot be cured, detecting the disease in time is important. Customary segmentation priors like a Potts model or total variation usually fail once handling skinny and elongated structures. The major problem in detection is that, there does not exist a great difference both in color and intensity, so segmentation and edge detection becomes tougher. We overcome this issue by employing a segmentation is done using based region growing method for edge detection and the Parameters of the strategy square measure learned mechanically using a structured output support vector machine, a supervised technique wide used for structured prediction during a variety of machine learning applications.
Review on exhaust heat recovery systems in diesel engine
M. Sashi Kumar, M.C. Palani | pp: 24-31 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Exhaust heat recovery system converts the thermal losses in the exhaust zone in engines into energy for work. This technology also reduces exhaust emission from engines. This review paper extends the classification of various methodologies on EHR in diesel engine. In spite of their indigenous benefit for various technologies, it has some limitation over applications to different context. From the current researches the variation in usage of exhaust heat from the diesel engine is evaluated and compared to find which methodology is suitable to attain high efficiency in thermal recovery for power generation. Finally a novel method of an EHR system is proposed to increase high percentage of heat recovery from the exhaust gas in diesel engines.
Design and Analysis of In-Line Three Cylinder Engine by Using Primary Balancing Method
K. Sathiya, M. Vinoth | pp: 32-40 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The inline three cylinder engine or straight – three cylinder engine is an inside combustion engine with all three cylinders mounted in an exceedingly line or plane on the housing. The objective of the paper is a way to develop and design the engine components like piston, connecting rod, crankshaft and flywheel and its assembly are designed by using primary balancing method. Lower numbers of cylinders on an engine results in higher torsional vibrations.One measure of engine torsional vibrations is engine cyclic speed irregularity. Higher torsional vibrations can limit engine operation at lower speeds. So the higher torsional vibration can be controlled by changing firing order of the crankshaft and also adding and removing mass at any area of the engine components. Here increasing the flywheel mass reduces speed irregularity during engine operation. Hence, the paper deals with the structural analysis on various ceramic based metal matrix composite materials. The engine components are designed by using SOLIDWORKS software and Analysis are performed using ANSYS WORKBENCH software.
Utilizing Released Automotive Engine Oils as Alternative Fuel for small heating application
Suresh D. Mane, Roopesh Vernekar, Razeefali Jamadar, Pravin Paramkar. shaikh Meraj | pp: 41-45 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Large quantities of lubricating oils are used in our automobiles, farm machinery and industrial processes; creating the need to address the issue of what to do with them when their useful life is over. Recycling of used engine oil products allows this non-renewable resource to be used many times reducing energy requirements but leads to many a potential environmental problems as the recycled oil does not meet the ILSAC, SAE or API standards for want of required additives and hence leads to faster wear and tear of engine components leading to greater environmental pollutions. An attempt is made to utilize the used engine lubricating oil from automobiles and design a furnace for heating applications viz. heat treatment and non ferrous metals melting in foundries which can provide higher heat energy than that being achieved using solid fuels. Many design iterations were undertaken and finally the objective of utilizing the heat energy was achieved by combustion of the oil with air in a single throttle swirl burner. The design was conceptualized to melt aluminium which is undertaken in foundries which are available in large numbers at Belgaum. Complete Design of the parts, Plotting assembly, sub-assembly drawings and fabrication of the burner has been undertaken and finally the used engine oil has been successfully burnt in the furnace to melt aluminium.
Class-III SLM and PTS Scheme Based on Variance of Correlation Analysis of PAPR and Alternative OFDM Signal Sequences
M. Vaishalini, G. Subramani | pp: 46-51 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: In this paper, a new peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed based on the selected mapping (SLM) scheme. The proposed SLM scheme generates alternative OFDM signal sequences by cyclically shifting the connections in each sub block at an intermediate stage of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). Compared with the conventional SLM scheme, the proposed SLM scheme achieves similar PAPR reduction performance with much lower computational complexity and no bit error rate (BER) degradation. The performance of the proposed SLM scheme is verified through numerical analysis. Also, it is shown that the proposed SLM scheme has the lowest computational complexity among the existing low-complexity SLM schemes exploiting the signals at an intermediate stage of IFFT. And also, developing the PAPR reduction by using the partial transmit sequence (PTS) method.
Security Improvement for IoT Communications Exposed to Eavesdroppers
M. Arthi, S. Karthik, S. Gayathri | pp: 52-59 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel paradigm that is rapidly gaining ground in the scenario of modern wireless telecommunications. In IoT, any devices having sensors and computers can interact with each other. Among all present technologies, the techniques for the fth generation (5G) systems are the main driving force for the actualization of IoT concept. But the security assurance against eavesdropping in the 5G network is a challenging task, because of the heterogeneous environment and the broadcast nature of radio propagation. In the present study, transmission design for secure relay communications in IoT networks was analysed in presence of eavesdroppers with unknown number and locations. A specially designed randomize and forward relay strategy for secure multi-hop communications was used in this study. During the study, the eavesdroppers and devices were first equipped with single antenna and the secrecy outage probability expression for two hop communications was derived. Then the devised were connected with multiple antennas and the secrecy rate maximization issues with respect to secrecy outage probability constraint were formulated. The results reveals that proper utilization of relay transmission can extend the secure coverage range improve the security level.
Design and Analysis of Displacement amplifier in compliant Mechanism using topology optimization
P. Gopal, Azhagiri Pon | pp: 60-70 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The thesis deals with Displacement-amplifying Compliant Mechanisms (DaCMs), which use the input displacement applied at a point to a give amplified output displacement at another point with a single elastic continuum. We developed a spring-mass-lever model to capture the static and dynamic behaviour of DaCMs. We used this model for evaluating the topologies of DaCMs for sensor applications based on several criteria, and used a combined figure of merit for selection. When none of the DaCM topologies in the database are able to meet all the requirements of a new sensor, we synthesize a new DaCM using topology optimization. This involves nonlinear constraints that were linearized to incorporate them into the optimality criteria method, which is used to solve the topology optimization problem. Two applications of DaCMs, namely, a bulk micro machined high-resolution accelerometer and a minute mechanical force sensor are pursued in this work. The addition of a DaCM to a micro machined accelerometer increases the sensitivity along the intended axis by an order of magnitude or more. But it has the undesirable side-effect of increasing the cross-axis sensitivity. We overcame this problem by a structural modification, and topology optimization that includes a constraint on the cross-axis sensitivity.
Design and Analysis of Compliant Mechanism Suspension
P. Gopal, Azhagiri Pon | pp: 71-74 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The development and growth of automobile is primarily aimed at improving efficiency. It also focuses on the need for lightweight engineering, where reduction in, mass and complexity of vehicle components is achieved. This paper is aimed at proposing a functionally integrated suspension system by introducing the concept of compliant mechanism, thus reducing the part count and saving space. This paper mainly focuses on Double Wishbone type suspension system where compliant mechanism is to be implemented with modifications without affecting its functionality. The Compliant type suspension system is modeled using suitable modeling software and then the proposed model was analyzed using ANSYS Workbench software.