Volume 01 Issue 04
Special Issue for “National conference on Engineering Design and Analysis” (NCEDA’16), Trichy, India.
Guest Editors: Dr. T. Senthilkumar, Dr. P. Gopal, Dr. B. Kumaragurubaran, Mr. Pon Azhagiri
2nd & 3rd September, 2016
Experimental Studies on Strength, Durability and Behaviour of Beam using Self Compacting Concrete with Organic Based Corrosion Inhibitor
R. Dharmaraj, R. Malathy | pp: 01-11 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Major initiatives are taken by developing countries like India in developing the infrastructure such as express highways, power projects, industrial structures, ports and harbour to meet the requirements of globalization in construction of buildings and other structures, concrete and steel play a major role in the construction industry. Reinforced concrete structural members are among the most congested structural elements. Placing and consolidating concrete in such structural members imposes substantial technical challenges. This offers a unique area of application for self compacting concrete because of its inherent ability to flow under its own weight and fill congested sections, complicated formwork and hard to reach areas. An experimental program was carried out the effect oforganic based corrosion inhibitor in preventing corrosion of embedded steel in self compacting concrete with the addition of “Diethanolamine” as an organic corrosion inhibitor in self compacting concrete. In this investigation is mainly focused on the mechanical strength property, durability, RCPT, and flexural behaviour of RC beams of using corrosion inhibitor (DEA) for SCC of mix design for M25 grade of concrete according to BIS method (IS 10262:2009). Then the conventional concrete mix proportions were modified into SCC properties as per EFNARC specifications and different trial mixes were done. The inhibitor is added in various percentages of 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%and 5% by weight of cement. The mix proportion used for test is 40% replacement of cement with class F fly ash. From these mix proportion specimens were casted as Cubes, Cylinders and Prism. Compressive strength, Split tensile test, Rupture test and water absorption were conducted on the casted samples. After the strength tests were carried out and the test results were compared with Conventional self compacting concrete, with the optimum concrete mix percentage of corrosion inhibitor i.e. 3%, SCC with DA3 give better performance in terms of strength compare to all other DEA percentage of SCC and to study the RCPT and flexural behaviour of RC beams with and without corrosion inhibitor (DEA).
Study on Strength and Durability Properties of Concrete with Metakaolin
R. Dharmaraj, G. Iyappan | pp: 12-15 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Metakaolin is a revolutionary artificial pozzolana admixture obtained from thermally activated ordinary clay and kaolinitic clay which greatly enhances the properties of ordinary concrete and become the central to the research in the making of special concrete. The overall objective of the present study is to study the effect of adding Metakaolin in concrete on its performance and its durability. For this Mix proportions of OPC concrete for M40 by IS method were determined. The mix proportion with partial replacement such as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of metakaolin with OPC were calculated. The concrete specimens such as cubes for M40 grade concrete were prepared and cured the specimens for 28 days. The compressive strength of concrete increased when cement is replaced by Metakaolin for M40 grade of concrete. The split tensile strength of concrete is increased when cement is replaced with Metakaolin. The flexural strength of concrete is also increased when the cement is replaced by Metakaolin.
Experimental Studies on Exploitation of Worn Transformer Oil (RTO) as a Substitute Fuel in a DI Diesel Engine
R. Saravanan, R. Naveetha Krishnan | pp: 16-21 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Salvage and recycling are superior option to originate energy or value added products from ravage gist and to curtail the disposal problems. Transformer oil is normally used as a coolant in welding transformers, power transformers and electromotive units. After a stretched use in these campaigns, the transformer oil becomes ravage and is disposed of. The disposal of worn transformer oil (RTO) causes an environmental pollution. However, the RTO has properties that are similar to that of diesel fuel with a slightly higher viscosity and lower calorific value. The present survey is aimed to salvage the RTO as a possible spring of energy to run a small powered, single cylinder, four strokes, and water cooled, direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Dissimilar techniques such as amalgamation, operating the engine to study the engine behavior in terms of performance and emission when the engine is fueled with the RTO. The results are analyzed and compared with diesel operation of the same engine. At higher loading condition the specific fuel consumption was most closer than diesel.
Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Radiator using Water Sprayers
T.Senthilkumar, P.Gopal, M.Manimozhi | pp: 22-25 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Heat exchangers find use in several applications such as in automobiles, refrigeration, air conditioning, and water treatment plants. Radiators are a class of heat exchangers in which heat transfer occurs by means of air flowing across a series of finned tubes, eventually decreasing the temperature of the fluid to be cooled. The energy crises of recent times have necessitate disproved heat transfer rates and at the same time the need for making heat exchangers smaller and more energy efficient .The performance of a heat exchanger in which flow of air is employed to cool the flow of Water can been handled by spraying water as a fine mist into the stream of coolant air. The water droplets, preferably less than 100microns in diameter, coat the heat exchanger surface on the air side of the heat exchanger and provide evaporative cooling. The preferred form of heat exchange surface has strip fins.
Fabrication and Analysis of Diffusion Bonded Joints between Magnesium and Copper using Nickel Interlayer
P. Navaneethakrishnan, T. Senthilkumar, G. Manikandan | pp: 26-30 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The experimental investigation of diffusion bonding of magnesium and Cu in vacuum was carried out by using nickel interlayer. The microstructure of the welded joints was studied by SEM, EDS, XRD and the mechanical properties of the samples were tested by tensile experiments. The hardness of diffusion welding area was significantly higher than the substrate. Fusion of welding dissimilar metals is difficult due to the formation of intermetallic compounds in the interface. Diffusion Bonding [DB], particularly the DB with interlayer is often resorted to as an alternate method for joining dissimilar metal combinations. The applications of DB with interlayers are steadily increasingstarting from Aerospace to Automotive industries. Diffusion bonding with interlayer is an emerging technology providing solution to diffusion bonding of dissimilar materials.
Evaluating the Effect of Plasma Spray Coating on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Steel Substrates
P. Navaneethakrishnan, T. Senthilkumar, S. Marimuthu | pp: 31-39 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Many benefits like good mechanical strength, hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and thermal shock resistance do not occur simultaneously and hence the pursuit for better materials always exist. The changing needs of our society demands new materials with enhanced properties to cater to specific needs, due to the limitations of the conventional materials. Increasing demand is there for requirements such as light weight structures and materials (for example aluminium, steel), combined with higher durability, for aircraft and automobile applications. Engine components used in the automobile and the aerospace sectors, where light weight is a necessity, are exposed to high temperatures in the range of 600°C to 900°C, which also demand a good structural strength, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Such pressing needs demand high strength but light weight structural parts with good surface properties. A parallel development is also taking place in the field of surface engineering to enhance the tribological properties of materials. Hence in this project we are coating the metals with plasma sprayed ceramics and study its effects, whereas characterization is done to find out the improvement in properties of metal after coating.
Effect of Oryza Punctata Synthesized With Zinc Oxide Nano Particles as Single Layer Antireflection Coating Layer in Mono Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell
P. Gopal, T. Senthilkumar, K. Raja, N. Bala Ganesh | pp: 40-44 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Oryza Punctata alias mappillai samba rice extract can be act as a bio template and coloring element . Bio template causes to synthesis various functional nano materials and the color element of the extract tends to harvest light apparently. While the oryza punctata synthesized with Zinc acetate by wet chemical method, the product comes to Oryza punctata doped ZnO nano particles successfully. X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that the prepared material possess crystalline in nature with hexagonal structure. Dynamic light scattering reveals the prepared OP-ZnO materials in stable and the molecular structure in nanometer. FESEM showed that the prepared material possess flower shape morphology, Nanoflowers. The OP-ZnO nano material brought into application of antireflective coating layer on mono crystalline silicon solar cell and performance compared with uncoated silicon solar cell. After OP doped ZnO ARC application, the cell efficiency could be improved up to 11.25% for an mono crystalline silicon solar cell from the value of 10.34%.
Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium based Composite Material
D. Mala, T. Senthilkumar, M. Rajkumar | pp: 45-50 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Magnesium metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with 2, 4, and 6 wt % of boron carbide and molybdenum disulphide particulates. The aim of the work is to investigate the corrosion and mechanical properties of magnesium based hybrid composites through powder metallurgy route. AZ-91 alloy systems has been paid much attention because of its widespread use in engineering application. In this work, AZ-91 Magnesium alloy hybrid composites reinforced with different ratios of boron carbide (B4C) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) through powder metallurgy route. Powder metallurgy (PM) is a widely used fabrication method for producing metal matrix composites. This usually involves three major stages: blending of the metal and ceramic powders, pressing or cold compaction, and sintering. Specimens were prepared through powder metallurgy by which more uniform distribution of particulates in the metal matrix without or with less excessive reactions between the matrix and reinforcement. Micro structural characterization of Mg MMCs showed generally uniform reinforcement distribution. The hardness values also shows improvement in addition of reinforcement with AZ 91 alloy.
Developing Diffusion Bonding Windows for Joining Z31 Magnesium and Copper using Nickel Interlayer
P. Sivakumar, T. Senthilkumar, M. Pavithran | pp: 51-57 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: In this investigation AZ-31and Cu dissimilar materials are joined by diffusion bonding process the principal difficulty when joining AZ-31 and Cu lies on the existence of hard to remove oxide films in magnesium surface sand the formation of brittle metallic interlayer sand oxide inclusions in the bond region. Conventional fusion welding is not a feasible technique to join these kinds of dissimilar joints due to the formation of chemical mechanical and structural heterogeneities. Solid state joining is a suitable alternate to overcome the difficulties. Diffusion bonding gives a sound bond without any macroscopic deformation because it involves only inter-atomic diffusion of atoms across the interface between the two metals being bonded. Energy required for the movement of atoms depends on the applied pressure and temperature. One important advantage of the diffusion bonding is that the individual characteristic so the base materials are retained after bonding, except probably at the interface. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate and compare the characteristicsofdissimilarjoiningofAZ-31magnesium with commercial grade copper alloys using diffusion bonding process. AZ-31 with Cu were carried out by varying the bonding temperature from 400°C to480ºC in the bonding pressure of 12MPa, stress from 66to81MPa and time from 30 to80 minutes.
Noise and Vibration Analysis of Petrol Engine Using Rubber Dampers
P. Gopal, T. Senthilkumar, M. Sathiyaseelan | pp: 58-62 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: This article presents the results of research into noise and vibrations produced by a petrol engine. The sound and vibration levels of the petrol engine were measured from the body frame setup. The engine rubber mounting technique have been chosen for the purpose of damping the vibrations and control body noise. The experiments were conducted to measure the noise and vibrations before and after putting the rubber dampers under the mounting of engine. Neoprene rubber mounts are used for the testing. Sound Level Meter and Accelerometer Sensors are used for the measurement of Noise and Vibration levels.
Fabrication and Analysis of Aluminium with Graphite Ceramic Reinforcement Based Metal Matrix Composites
S. Tamil Selvan, C. Saravanan., T. Senthilkumar | pp: 63-66 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The influence of graphite particulates on the dry sliding wear behavior of aluminium alloy 7075 (AA7075)–graphite composites has been evaluated using a pin-on-disc apparatus. The materials were fabricated by a liquid casting technique. Composites with 8 wt% graphite particles were processed. The casted composites were subjected to T6 heat treatment. The effect of sliding speed and sliding distance has been studied under dry sliding conditions. The hardness of the composites is measured using a Brinell hardness tester and their tensile strength is measured using a universal testing machine. The wear rate of the composites reduced with the addition of graphite content and reached a minimum with 8 wt% graphite content. The coefficient of friction is decreased with the addition of graphite content and reached a minimum at 8 wt% graphite. The effect of graphite on hardness and tensile strength is also studied. The worn surfaces of the pin specimen are analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. The 7075 aluminium alloy exhibited its potential to act effectively as a self-lubricating material under dry sliding conditions in the lower range of graphite content, and 8 wt% graphite appeared to be optimum.
Experimental Investigation on using Fins on Upstream Side for Cooling of PV Panels in Streetlight Applications
M. Chandrasekar, T. Senthilkumar | pp: 67-70 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: One of the main obstacles that face the operation of photovoltaic panel (PV) is overheating due to excessive solar radiation and high ambient temperatures. Overheating reduces the efficiency of the panels severely. This undesirable effect can be avoided by applying various cooling methods. One such method is passive cooling of PV panel by attaching aluminium fin with the PV panel. Fins transfer the heat from the panel to the atmosphere by convection. The thermal and electrical performance of flat PV module with and without cooling system consisting of aluminium fins in the upstream side are investigated in the location of Tiruchirappalli (78.6°E & 10.8°N), Tamil Nadu, India experimentally with 10 W monocrystalline solar panel. It is shown that the temperature of the panel is reduced by about 6°C and the average power output is increased by 0.7 W and the electrical conversion efficiency is increased by 1.66 %.
Design of tracking system for solar flat PV panel by thermo siphon for performance improvement
M. Chandrasekar, T. Senthilkumar | pp: 71-73 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Photovoltaic technology allows converting solar energy into electrical energy without environmental impact during operation. This paper evaluates the performance of two photovoltaic systems: one fixed and one equipped with a solar tracker. The objective of this research is to develop a solar tracking system that is actuated by thermo siphon principle to increase the electrical energy by using the solar tracking system. The need for energy consumption of the solar tracker is eliminated.
Design and Analysis of Camless and Valveless Engine
Pon.Azhagiri , T. Senthilkumar, M. Jignesh, P. Gopal | pp: 74-77 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The cylinder head has come a lot of variations throughout the years. The engine operates using camshaft and rocker arm via pushrod and valves. But it has gone many modifications like Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC) and Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC), the variable valve timing engine. But the power consumed in all these engines are higher and also losses in power due to friction is also significant. The latest years of technology is working on the idea of Camless Engine and there are many ways in achieving that. Our project focusses on designing of camless and valveless engine by using rotating disc operated by Electric motor. By using the disc in place of cams we will be able to reduce the overall cylinder weight and also we can utilize the power consumed by the Camshafts. The Disc will be placed in between the Manifold and the combustion Chamber. The Engine speed sensor determines the speed of the disc and position sensor sets correct alignment of disc The whole process is controlled by Engine Control unit.
Characterization of Diffusion Bonded Joints
G. Mahadevan, T. Senthilkumar, S. Muthupandi*, G. Mahadevan | pp: 78-82 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Titanium – stainless steel joints are made in nuclear applications for better corrosion resistance. Conventional fusion welding is not a feasible technique to join these kinds of dissimilar joints due to the formation of chemical, mechanical and structural heterogeneities. Solid state joining is a suitable alternate to overcome the difficulties. No melting is involved in solid state welding; hence melting related defects are avoided. Recently, diffusion bonding has become a viable process in the fabrication of structural hardware or fluid and gas flow devices for aerospace and electronic industries. This paper presents the fundamentals of the diffusion bonding process and its applications in aerospace technology including thermal management devices for missiles, liquid rocket engines, and millimeter wave hybrid horns for land and space surveillance.
Evaluation of Mechanical Properties Using Sisal Fiber Reinforeced Polymers
A. Manikandan, Cyril Reuben Raj, T. Senthilkumar, P. Gopal | pp: 83-89 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Natural Fibers have an outstanding potential as reinforcement in thermoplastics. The objectives of this experiment are to evaluate the suitability of producing natural fiber composites using sisal fiber. This study deals with the preparation of Sisal Fiber composites by using hand layup method in which good interfacial adhesion is generated by a combination of fiber modification and matrix methods. Initially the sisal fibers were treated in order to improve resin fiber interfacial bonding. Generally, composites that contain treated fiber have a higher tensile modulus and greater flexural modulus than do untreated fiber composites. The goal of this project is which composites fiber best and related to other composites .In this type of project to determine mechanical properties and strength calculation identify this result. Composites with volumetric amounts of fiber in 30% were fabricated and they were arranged in continuous oriented discontinues form. Here using continuous orientation method for composite fibers with polyester resin to check tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength to give greater strength composite materials. It was observed that the effects of reinforcing vinyl ester matrix with the fibers caused the composites to be more flexible and easily deform due to high strain values and reduction of high resonant amplitude.
Design and Analysis of Four Arms Portable Auto Jack
G. Elatharasan, R. Manikandan, G. Karthikeyan | pp: 90-94 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Scissor jack is a mechanical device used to lifting vehicles. As a working of jack screw to change the rotational force into linear motion is allowing required height. In this investigation the shape of jack designed by a diagonal metals and similarly for the pair of scissors. Using CATIA package for high-resolution parametric design and analysis purpose modeled by ANSYS software over a huge amount of loading conditions. The diagonal metal components and same way for the scissor jack. In this investigation to supporting a load of 5KN for wheelers has designed and analyzed. Observation from the recent reviews, various failure analysis of screw jack such as material distortion of energy for heavy load, high work, teeth failure, arm and screw failures. Using design changes of diagonal metal shape to increasing efficiency for heavy loadings good serviceability and workability.
Investigation of Properties of Turpentine Oil Blends with Petrol and Diesel as an Alternative Fuel
T. Senthilkumar, Pon.Azhagiri, S.Sridhar | pp: 95-102 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Pollution from the petroleum oil increases day by day in terms of CO2, CO, NOX, PM an many other gases and particles. Price difference and economy leads people toward the use of alternative fuels. To overcome this problem turpentine oil is mixed with petrol and diesel and taken as different samples. Then the properties like flash and fire point, cloud and pour point, calorific value, carbon content, ash content are analyzed at various proportions of turpentine oil (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% of 100ml sample). Fuels, as for any other type of substance, can be assigned some physical and chemical properties (e.g. density, thermal capacity, vapourpressure, chemical formula, etc. However, most of the times, combustion properties are also assigned to blended fuels, in spite of the fact that these properties depend on the oxidizer (e.g. air, pure oxygen) and the actual process (e.g. the explosion limits depend on the boundary conditions for a given fuel/oxidizer pair). Fuel price, availability, risk, and so on, could also be considered fuel properties(attributes).
Investigation on The Performance of Four Stroke SI Engine using Methyl Phenyl Ether (Anisole) Blended with Gasoline
Pon.Azhagiri, T. Senthilkumar, C. Arunkumar, B. Kumaragurubaran | pp: 103-107 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The internal combustion engine is the key to the modern society. Without the transportation performed by the millions of vehicles on road and at sea we would not have reached today’s living standard. There are two types of internal combustion engines, namely, the Spark Ignition (SI), and the Compression Ignition (CI). Petrol and diesel are at present the principal fuels for SI and CI engines, respectively. These fuels are on the verge of getting extinct, and during combustion, these fuels release substantial amount of pollutants into the atmosphere and create environmental related problems. The internal combustion (IC) engine is known to be one of the major sources of air pollution in the environment. Petroleum based fuels have important role in rapid depletion of fossil fuels as with demand is increasing performance of the SI engine using methyl phenyl ether(anisole) blended with gasoline. Recognised as ecofriendly fuel so considering this through the experiment an attempt has been made of Anisole blended on SI engine in laboratory and found its properties and characteristics. Various blends of Anisole were prepared and its performance was evaluated with single cylinder four stroke petrol engine.
Analytical Solution For Cathode Design of Diaphragm Through Electrochemical Machining
T. Senthilkumar, P. Gopal, B. Chandrasekaran | pp: 108-113 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: With the rapid progress of aerospace performance, the machining quality and dimensional accuracy of aerospace parts became ever-increasingly important. In order to obtain excellent aerodynamic performance, the shape of aero-engine blades and the diaphragm turns more and more complex. Electrochemical Machining is used to create such complex shapes with high accuracy. It is important in Electrochemical Machining (ECM) to design a tool of appropriate dimension, to produce work piece with desired shape. Analytical methods available in this context are numerical method, analytical method, cos θ method, analogue method, etc. Among them, cos θ method governs more flexibility to deal with the irregularly shaped work pieces. However, it is very difficult to estimate the Inter electrode gap width in the case of curved electrode surfaces. This project attempts to develop a model by cos θ approach of cathode design based on the potential distribution in Inter-Electrode Gap. In order to ensure the convergence of cos θ approach and increase the accuracy in cathode design, the cathode shape should be iterated to eliminate the design errors in computational process. Current density distribution and potential difference between the electrodes are found using COMSOL electrochemistry module. Several experiments have been conducted to verify the machining accuracy of the designed cathode. The experimental results prove the perfect convergence and good computing accuracy of the proposed cos θ approach. The L-shaped work piece is machined and surface finish of 0. 21µm is attained.
Optimizing the plasma spray process parameters of yttria stabilized coatings on AISI 316 Austenitic stainless steel using response surface methodology
I. Nazimudeen, B. Kumaragurubaran , T. Senthilkumar | pp: 114-123 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Atmospheric plasma spraying is used extensively to make Thermal Barrier Coatings of 5-7% yttria-stabilized zirconia powders. The main problem faced in the manufacture of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by the atmospheric plasma spraying process is the selection of the optimum combination of input variables for achieving the required qualities of coating. This problem can be solved by the development of empirical relationships between the process parameters (current, powder feed rate, stand-off distance ) and the coating quality characteristics (coating thickness, coating hardness and porosity) through effective and strategic planning and the execution of experiments by response surface methodology. This article highlights the use of response surface methodology by designing four factor five level central composite rotatable design matrixe with full replication for planning, conduction, execution, and development of empirical relationships. Further, response surface methodology was used for the selection of optimum process parameters to achieve desired quality of yttria-stabilized zirconia coating deposits on stainless steel.
Fabrication and Analysis of power Generation from Shock Absorber
P.Gopal, T.Senthilkumar, J. Siva Prakash | pp: 124-129 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The need for shock absorber arises because of the roll and pitches associated with vehicle, and from the roughness of roads. The Hydraulic rectifier is Energy Generating device. The rectifier works as Shock absorber by converting bi directional shocks into unidirectional rotation with help of 4 check valve. Passive Damper can be used as active damper with help of electromagnetic Damper (EM). The EM damper generates energy and fulfills the purpose of hybrid shock absorber. The dissipated energy is recovered using Regenerative Electromagnetic shock absorber. Coil assembly moves related to magnetic assembly which produces Energy. Magneto Rehodological (MR) fluid changes braking force by electronic the electric shock absorber is a device that converts the kinetic energy of an oscillating object into electric energy. This kinetic energy is normally dumped in a form of thermal energy in a conventional, mechanical shock absorber. The electric shock absorber consists of a permanent magnet linear synchronous generator (PMLSG), a spring, and an electric energy accumulator. The major goal of the project is to design and analyze the operation of an electric shock absorber. In order to define the initial requirements that the electric shock absorber has to satisfy.
Design of Steering System for an Off-Road Vehicle
M. Shanmugaraja, R. Vijay and M. Vishnu Vardhan | pp: 130-132 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: This paper describes about the design of steering system for an off-road vehicle. Different aspects that influence the design of steering system are considered in this work. The details belonging to design of steering box, steering linkages and steering wheel are presented in this paper and discussed further.
Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid with Combination of Circular Ring and Twisted Tape Inserts
D.Mala, S. Sendhilnathan, B. Amritha | pp: 133-140 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: An investigation is made experimentally with an attempt to enhance the rate of heat transfer of Al2O3 nanofluid in a heat exchanger with twisted tape insert. The heat transfer and the corresponding friction factors needed for performance analysis are determined at variable operating conditions of the heat exchangers with particle volume concentration of 0.1% , 0.3% and 0.6% and twist ratios ranging between 1.25 and 5. Experimental data are obtained at flow Reynolds number ranging from 767 to 2301. The Nusselt number of entire pipes for 0.6% concentrations of nanofluid with twisted tape inserts is enhanced by 147.85 % compared to water while the friction factor is increased by 7.6 times compared to water with twisted tape insert of TR = 1.25. Correlations are developed to estimate the Nusselt number and friction factor. The results of the investigation indicated significant improvement in the performance parameters of the heat exchanger with a rise in volume concentration of the nanoparticle.
Mechanical Characterization of Aluminium Based Metal Matrix Composites- A Review
S.V.Alagarsamy, M. Ravichandran, A.L. Gobimanikandan | pp: 141-145 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Aluminium metal matrix composites have been widely used as substitute materials in aerospace, automobile and structural applications because of their high strength to weight ratio, good ductility, excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Metal matrix composites are advanced engineering materials reinforced with different materials which posses combined and improved mechanical, physical and tribological properties. This paper presents the overview of the effect of addition on different types of reinforcement in aluminium alloy through stir casting process.
Effect of SI Engine Performance by Adding the Additive of Oxy Hydrogen
T. Senthilkumar, P. Gopal, B. Hemalatha | pp: 146-151 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: The objective of this thesis is to improve engines performance and reduce the fuel consumption by mixing fuel with HHO gas. A gaseous fuel containing high percentages of hydrogen and oxygen is obtained directly from water by a special kind of electrolysis technology. This gaseous fuel is mixed with gasoline in the engine intake. This research presents the results obtained from the experiments concerning performance of petrol engine when it is operated at different loads. These tests emphasized the possibility of reducing fuel consumptions offered by the gaseous fuel in comparison with the engine operated on gasoline fuel alone. Experiments confirmed an improvement in engine performance, a reduction in fuel consumption.
Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Alumina Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced with Fused Zirconia and Alumina Oxide
C. Saravanan, Pon.Azhagiri, A. Abinaya, T. Senthilkumar | pp: 152-159 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: This project deals with the evaluation of mechanical properties of aluminum alloy metal matrix composites reinforced with fused zirconium alumina (ZA-40) bonded abrasive particles which were fabricated by stir casting method. The sample specimens were prepared by varying the percentage of weight fraction of reinforced particles as 5,10,15 and the remaining aluminum alloy respectively. The mechanical properties were analyzed. The evaluation of mechanical properties indicates variations in tensile strength, hardness and impact strength with respect to composite combinations. From the experimental studies, the optimum weight percentage of the matrix and reinforcement on the basis of mechanical properties was found to be 90 and 10 respectively.
Design and Development of Incremental Sheet Forming process
Pon. Azhagiri, T. Senthilkumar, R. Prasanth | pp: 160-164 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Single Point Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is one of the most advanced techniques in the domain of flexible sheet forming process to produce complex products, which do not require any expensive and dedicated forming tools (punch & die). The Laboratory setup of Incremental Forming Machine has been developed. A Motion card has been used to control the 3 servo motors giving capability of individual 3 Axis controlling. The forming trials are carried out based on simulation study of incremental forming process. The strain distribution over the length of deformation has been computed.
Eliminating the Backward Shifting Of Tailstock in the Camshaft Journal Turning Machine
G. Elatharasan, V.M. Illayaraja Muthaiyaa, T. Parameshwaran Pillai | pp: 165-168 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Manufacturing of camshaft involves a number of complex and minute processes. It involves facing, centering, turning, hardening, induction hardening, tempering, washing, lapping and oiling. In the turning machine Proteck PL 600 Twin, one of the major problems is when the machine is kept idle for 10mins it will go to power save mode automatically. If the operator presses the reset button the hydraulic pump and the DC valve will be activated. Due to hammering effect of oil with 40bar pressure on Tail quill cylinder, even Tailstock clamped condition tail stock moves back by 0.5mm. This problem leads to ineffective clamping of camshaft for the operation in the machine. This is because of the leakage of oil in the link cylinder due the oil port offset location which causes pressure drop. These results in major disadvantages like create vibration while the job is running, so that the tool and the job will be damaged or may be broken. It causes major accidents to the operator due to ineffective clamping. Also the availability of the machine decreases which decrease the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).
Performance and Emission Analysis of Zeolite Coated Catalytic Convertor
S. Sathyanarayanan, S. Bala Krishnan, R. Suresh Babu, R. Kumar | pp: 169-172 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: This paper presents characteristics of a new catalytic converter to reduce NOx in the exhaust gas in S.I engines. The catalytic converter was developed based on catalyst materials consisting of “Natural Zeolite” with wire mesh substrate. In our design “Zeolite” in powder form is coated over the stainless steel wire mesh and a new catalytic converter was fabricated to reduce NOx as well as HC. We used Gas Analyzer Kit to measure the exhaust gas properties. Initially experiments were conducted on the zeolite coated converter and the results were compared with conventional catalytic converter.
Design and Analysis of the Dualband Hybrid Branch Line Couple
P. Elamaran, G. Srivatsun, V.M. Illayaraja Muthaiyaa | pp: 173-176 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: This paper presents the design of 3dB Hybrid branch line coupler. A hybrid dual band branch line coupler is designed in micro strip configuration to cover frequency band of 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.The hybrids branch line coupler is one of the most popular for the convenience of design and implementation. The proposed dual band hybrid branch line coupler provides good resonant frequency, isolation, directivity and reasonable insertion loss and return loss and increase bandwidth. Optimization of the design is carried out in Agilent technologies of Advanced Design System to meet required specification.
Welded Component (Super Duplex Stainless Steel S32750) by using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
N. Anandharajan, M. Balakrishnan, R. Varalakshmi, T. Senthilkumar | pp: 177-181 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: In this study, tensile strength of similar welded components (Super Duplex stainless steel) by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) was investigated. DC TIG is generally used to weld exotic material like stainless steel. The tensile strengths of the welded joints were measured. Tensile strength, Hardness and microstructure values also confirmed this result. We conclude the properties of result. To test the gas tungsten arc welding are better or not.
Microstructural Evaluation of Friction Stir Spot Welding in Al 5052 Joints for Vehicle Body Project
P. Gopal, T. Senthilkumar, S. Nanthini | pp: 182-187 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: FSSW is a newly developed solid state joining technology. In this study, FSSW technique is applied to join Al 5052 alloy sheets with 1mm thickness and then the effect of rotational speed on microstructures and mechanical properties is discussed. Maximum TSFL of about 3.12 KN was obtained by using 0.33 mm/s Plunge speed, 1.2 mm plunge depth, 8 s dwell time at 1175 rpm tool rotational speed for H13 tool. The welded specimen which could withstand high TSFL was taken for SEM analysis. The SEM micrographs analyze the various zones in the welded specimen consisting of SZ, TMAZ, HAZ and BM. From our work, the grain morphology was to be observed as the fine grain structures with minimum hairline cracks in SZ compare to other zones and so the strength of the weld has to be enhanced. This technique of FSSW is used in automotive body structures for light weight applications.
Performance Characteristic of a CI Engine using Esterified Transformer Oil
D.B. Sivakumar, T. Senthilkumar, S. Milkin Sudharson | pp: 188-192 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Increase in energy demand, stringent emission norms and depletion of oil resources have led the Researchers to find alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Reuse and recycling are better option to derive energy or value added products from waste substances and to minimize the disposal problems. Transformer oil is generally used as a coolant in welding transformers, power transformers and electromotive units. However, the transformer oil has properties that are similar to diesel fuel with marginally higher viscosity and lower calorific value. The present investigation is aimed to use the transformer oil as a possible source of energy to run a small powered, single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine. In the present work, two different blends of transformer oil in varying proportions of 7%, 14% with diesel are used. The performance parameters such as a brake power, specific fuel consumption, and thermal efficiency are calculated on experimental analysis of engine. The results are analyzed and compared with diesel operation of the same engine. The current study investigates the suitability for using transformer oil as an alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) Engine. In the first Part of the investigation, engine performance was conducted. In the latter part of the investigation transformer oil was converted by well know transesterification process and again different fuel properties and engine performance were conducted. Properties of normal transformer oil and blended transformer oil were compared with those of Conventional diesel fuel (DF). All properties were close to those of diesel fuel. The engine performance with transformer oil was much better than that of diesel fuel. Based on the findings, transformer oil was suggested to be alternative fuels for CI engine.
Improvement of Tribological and Thermal Properties of Engine Lubricant by using Nanoparticle Additives
P. Sivakumar, T. Senthilkumar, A. Rajan | pp: 193-199 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Wear is the progressive loss of the material from the operating surface of machine due to relative motion between surfaces. The successful design of machine elements depends upon essentially on the understanding tribological principles like wear and friction. The lubricating oils are the blood of the machine’s operation, and the service life and economic effectiveness of the machine are relative to the quality, performance and reasonable use of the oils. One of the methods to improve the property of the oil is adding a suitable additive. In recent days’ nanomaterials are emerged as a lubricant additive which increases the tribological and thermal property of the lubricant oil. In this study, the tribological and thermal properties of Cerium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles suspended in the engine lubricant oil are investigated experimentally. SAE 20 W40 oil is used as base oil in which Ce doped zinc oxide nanoparticle of size 31 nm at 0.1%wt concentration are dispersed. The Ultrasonic Bath is used to disperse the nano particles in the base oil. The frictional force and wear rate are measured using the Pin-On-Disk apparatus. The results show that frictional force when using the Ce doped zinc Oxide nanolubricant at 0.1% was reduced by 15.5% comparing with the base oil respectively. The wear rate is also reduced when using the nanolubricants. In addition to the tribological properties, the thermal property like Thermal Conductivity is also measured for the nanolubricants. The results showed that the thermal conductivity was increased about 2.0% using Ce doped zinc oxide nanolubricant. The results indicate that the Ce doped zinc oxide nano particles improve the tribological and thermal properties of the lubricant oil.
Review on the Aerodynamic Drag on LCVS and Semi-Trailer Trucks and Reduction Methods
N. Srinivas, M. Vinoth, P. Gopal, T. Senthilkumar | pp: 200-207 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: In order to measure the aerodynamic drag produced, a 1/10th scale model truck, a small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. For trucks, the results show that these external attachments (fairing and covering) have notable impact on aerodynamic drag as they can reduce up to around 26% aerodynamic drag over the baseline model depending on cross wind effects. The full-skirting (using the front fairing, side skirting and gap filling) has maximum impact whereas only front fairing has minimum impact on aerodynamic drag reduction. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.
Multi Objective Optimization of Worm and Worm Wheel using Genetic Algorithm
N. Anandharajan, Pon.Azhagiri, S. Mathavan, T. Senthilkumar | pp: 208-213 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Researches in the area of industrial engineering have been receiving considerable attention now over the way of optimizing the engineering components and other scheduling problems. Only limited people had done their work on engineering components design optimization, that too with single objective with or without constraints. Gears in the early stages were in the form of cylindrical discs having surface irregularities. These primitive transmission tools were adequate to meet the operational needs of those days. Ancient engineers were aware of the desired performance parameters such as a gear ratio, center distance and available power source (water current, wind, horse power) and used them to define the gear parameters (diameters, number and shape of the teeth). They then manufactured gears using available materials, technology and tools. From these facts it is seen that it is necessary to vary ratio of the speed of rotation of the vehicle wheels (and thereby the vehicle speed) to the speed of rotation of the engine.
Multi Objective Optimization of Spur Gear using Genetic Algorithm
Pon.Azhagiri, T. Senthilkumar, P. Balakrishnan | pp: 214-220 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Researches in the area of industrial engineering have been receiving considerable attention now over the way of optimizing the engineering components and other scheduling problems. Only limited people had done their work on engineering components design optimization, that too with single objective with or without constraints. Gears in the early stages were in the form of cylindrical discs having surface irregularities. These primitive transmission tools were adequate to meet the operational needs of those days. Ancient engineers were aware of the desired performance parameters such as a gear ratio, centre distance and available power source (water current, wind, horse power) and used them to define the gear parameters (diameters, number and shape of the teeth). They then manufactured gears using available materials, technology and tools. From these facts it is seen that it is necessary to vary ratio of the speed of rotation of the vehicle wheels (and thereby the vehicle speed) to the speed of rotation of the engine.
Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Al 6061/ Al 5052 Using Friction stir welding Process
C.Saravanan, T. Senthilkumar, V. Poomanikandan | pp: 221-225 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Engineers today are facing the challenge to join dissimilar materials as they are seeking to create new structures or machine parts in various industries. Problems including porosity formation, solidification cracking, and chemical reaction may arise during fusion welding of dissimilar materials although sound welds may be obtained in some limited cases with special attentions to the joint design and preparation, process parameters and filler metals. Friction stir welding is not more affectable compared with others.
A Review on Homogenous Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine and its Control Strategies
A.R. Surendar, A. Siddharth Rathan Kumar, M Vinoth, T. Senthilkumar | pp: 226-230 | Purchase PDF
Abstract: Increased utilization of conventional fossil fuels has urged the development of alternative power sources, also along with it the IC engines have been developing with advanced combustion techniques. One such is the relatively new Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine technology whichis a combination of gasoline and diesel engines, capitalizing on the advantages of high engine efficiency and low emissions levels.This paper describes about history of origin, research works and the working process of HCCI engines along with its advantages.Also the problems and limitations in using HCCI engines and different strategies and methods to be adopted to resolve them are discussed.